Drone is also called unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an unpiloted aircraft. UAVs come in two varieties: some are controlled from a remote location, and others fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans using more complex dynamic automation systems. Currently, UAVs perform reconnaissance as well as attack missions. They are also used in a small but growing number of civil applications, such as firefighting. UAVs are often preferred for missions that are too "dull, dirty, or dangerous" for manned aircraft.
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A MQ-9 Reaper, a hunter-killer surveillance UAV used by the United States Armed Forces and British Armed Forces, especially in Iraq and Afghanistan.RQ-4 Global Hawk, a high-altitude reconnaissance Drone capable of 36 hours continuous flight time
The earliest UAV was A. M. Low's "Aerial Target" of 1916. A number of remote-controlled airplane advances followed, including the Hewitt-Sperry Automatic Airplane, during and after World War I, including the first scale RPV (Remote Piloted Vehicle), developed by the film star and model airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935.More were made in the technology rush during the Second World War; these were used both to train antiaircraft gunners and to fly attack missions. Jet engines were applied after WW2, in such types as the Teledyne Ryan Firebee I of 1951, while companies like Beechcraft also got in the game with their Model 1001 for the United States Navy in 1955. Nevertheless, they were little more than remote-controlled airplanes until the Vietnam Era.
With the maturing and miniaturization of applicable technologies as seen in the 1980s and 1990s, interest in UAVs grew within the higher echelons of the US military. UAVs were seen to offer the possibility of cheaper, more capable fighting machines that can be used without risk to aircrews. Initial generations were primarily surveillance aircraft, but some were fitted with weaponry (such as the MQ-1 Predator, which utilized AGM-114 Hellfire air-to-ground missiles). An armed UAV is known as an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV).
The near future will likely see unmanned aircraft employed, offensively, for bombing and ground attack. As a tool for search and rescue, UAVs can help find humans lost in the wilderness, trapped in collapsed buildings, or adrift at sea. While air-to-air combat will likely remain the last domain of the human pilot, when unmanned fighter jets do come about, they will enjoy the advantage of almost unlimited immunity to G-force effects.
In the future, UAVs will be able to take full advantage of scramjet technology.. Today's scramjets, while unmanned, see use only for testing purposes (e.g.., NASA X-43A, NASA's Hyper-X scramjet program), but have the potential when developed for combat to out-maneuver even the most experienced pilots.
U.S. military UAV classifications
The modern concept of U.S. military UAVs is to have the various aircraft systems work together in support of personnel on the ground. The integration scheme is described in terms of a "Tier" system, and is used by military planners to designate the various individual aircraft elements in an overall usage plan for integrated operations. The Tiers do not refer to specific models of aircraft, but rather roles for which various models and their manufacturers competed. The U.S. Air Force and the U.S.. Marine Corps each has its own tier system, and the two systems are themselves not integrated.
US Air Force tiers
US Marine Corps tiers
U.S. Army tiers
Future Combat Systems (FCS) (U.S. Army) classes
UAVs perform a wide variety of functions. The majority of these functions are some form of remote sensing; this is central to the reconnaissance role most UAVs fulfill. Less common UAV functions include interaction and transport.
UAV remote sensing functions include electromagnetic spectrum sensors, biological sensors, and chemical sensors. A UAV's electromagnetic sensors typically include visual spectrum, infrared, or near infrared cameras as well as radar systems. Other electromagnetic wave detectors such as microwave and ultraviolet spectrum sensors may also be used, but are uncommon. Biological sensors are sensors capable of detecting the airborne presence of various microorganisms and other biological factors. Chemical sensors use laser spectroscopy to analyze the concentrations of each element in the air.
UAVs can transport goods using various means based on the configuration of the UAV itself. Most payloads are stored in an internal payload bay somewhere in the airframe. For many helicopter configurations, external payloads can be tethered to the bottom of the airframe. With fixed wing UAVs, payloads can also be attached to the airframe, but aerodynamics of the aircraft with the payload must be assessed. For such situations, payloads are often enclosed in aerodynamic pods for transport.
Unmanned aircraft are uniquely capable of penetrating areas which may be too dangerous for piloted craft. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began utilizing the Aerosonde unmanned aircraft system in 2006 as a hurricane hunter. AAI Corporation subsidiary Aerosonde Pty Ltd. of Victoria (Australia), designs and manufactures the 35-pound system, which can fly into a hurricane and communicate near-real-time data directly to the National Hurricane Center in Florida. Beyond the standard barometric pressure and temperature data typically culled from manned hurricane hunters, the Aerosonde system provides measurements far closer to the waterâ€™s surface than previously captured. Further applications for unmanned aircraft can be explored once solutions have been developed for their accommodation within national airspace, an issue currently under discussion by the Federal Aviation Administration.
MQ-1 Predator UAVs armed with Hellfire missiles are now used as platforms for hitting ground targets in sensitive areas. Armed Predators were first used in late 2001 from bases in Pakistan and Uzbekistan, mostly for targeted assassinations inside Afghanistan. Since then, there were several reported cases of such assassinations taking place in Pakistan, this time from Afghan-based Predators. The advantage of using an unmanned vehicle, rather than a manned aircraft in such cases, is to avoid a diplomatic embarrassment should the aircraft be shot down and the pilots captured, since the bombings took place in countries deemed friendly and without the official permission of those countries.
A Predator, based in a neighboring Arab country, was used to kill suspected al-Qa'ida terrorists in Yemen on November 3, 2002. This marked the first use of an armed Predator as an attack aircraft outside of a theater of war such as Afghanistan.
Search and Rescue
UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the United States. This was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs during the 2008 hurricanes that struck Louisiana and Texas.
For example, Predators, operating between 18,000-29,000 feet above sea level, performed search and rescue and damage assessment. Payloads carried were an optical sensor, (which is a daytime and infra red camera), and a synthetic aperture radar. The Predator's SAR is a sophisticated all-weather sensor capable of providing photographic- like images through clouds, rain or fog, and in daytime or nighttime conditions; all in real-time. A concept of coherent change detection in SAR images allows for exceptional search and rescue ability: photos taken before and after the storm hits are compared and a computer highlights areas of damage.
Drone attacks on Pakistan by the United States of America
Drone Attacks on Pakistan by the United States of America refers to a series of ongoing attacks on targets in Pakistan by the United States of America. Under the Bush administration, these controversial attacks were called a part of War on Terrorism and seek to defeat the Taliban and Al-Qaeda militants who are thought to have found a safe haven in Pakistan. Most of these attacks are on targets in Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Northwest Pakistan. These strikes are thought to be carried out by unmanned aerial vehicles Generally the UAVs used are MQ-1 Predator and more recently MQ-9 Reaper firing AGM-114 Hellfire missiles. The Drones have become one of the favorite weapons in the fight against al-Qaeda Drone attacks have intensified since August 2008 and between August 2008 and March 2009 more than 35 strikes killed at least 340 people. (UAVs) operated remotely by the Central Intelligence Agency.
Central Intelligence Agency generally does not comment on these attacks as per its policy. Barack Obama authorized the continuation of these strikes after he became President.  President Obama has broadened these attacks to include targets seeking to destabilize Pakistani civilian government and the attacks of February 14 & 16, 2009 were against training camps run by Baitullah Mehsud. On February 25, 2009 Leon Panetta director of CIA indicated these strikes will continue. On March 4, 2009 The Washington Times reported that the drones were targeting Baitullah Mehsud. Top US officials consider these strikes very successful and believe that the senior Al-Qaeda leadership has been decimated by these strikes.An account of high value targets eliminated by drones was provided to Pakistan in 2009. Barack Obama was reported in March 2009 as considering expanding these strikes to include Balochistan
US officials stated in March 2009 that the Predator strikes had killed 9 of Al Qaeda's 20 top commanders. The officials added that many top Taliban and Al Qaeda leaders, as a result of the strikes, had fled to Quetta or even further to Karachi.
US military reports indicate that al-Qaeda is being slowly but systematically routed because of these attacks, and has served to sow the shadow fight 2 mod apk seeds of uncertainty and discord among their ranks. The drone attacks have addled and confused the Taliban, and have led them to turn against each other.
In protest to Drone attacks on Pakistan by the United States of America, in an event sponsored by Nevada Desert Experience, Father Louie Vitale, Kathy Kelly, Stephen Kelly, SJ, Eve Tetaz, John Dear, and others were arrested outside Creech Air Force Base on Wednesday April 9, 2009
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Pakistan has repeatedly protested these attacks claiming that they are an infringement of its sovereignty and that civilian deaths have also resulted including women and children which has further angered the Pakistani government and people. General David Petraeus was told in November 2008 that these strikes were unhelpful. However on October 4, 2008 The Washington Post reported that there was a secret deal between USA and Pakistan allowing these drone attacks. US senator Dianne Feinstein talking about the drones in February 2009 said that â€œAs I understand it, these are flown out of a Pakistani base. Pakistani foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi denied that this was true.
The British newspaper The Times stated on February 18, 2009 that the US CIA was using Shamsi airfield, 190 miles southwest of Quetta and 30 miles from the Afgan border, as its base for drone operations. Safar Khan, a journalist based in the area near Shamsi, told the Times, "We can see the planes flying from the base. The area around the base is a high-security zone and no one is allowed there." Shah Mehmood Qureshi, Pakistan's Foreign Minister, on February 15, 2009 denied that Pakistani bases were used for US drone attacks. Top US officials confirmed to Fox News Channel that Shamsi airfield was indeed being used by CIA to launch the drones since 2002.
The drone attacks continue despite repeated requests made by President Zardari through different channels. Baitullah Mehsud while claiming responsibility for 2009 Lahore police academy attacks stated that this attack was in retaliation to the drone attacks.According to The Daily Telegraph, Pakistani intelligence has agreed to secretly provide information to the United States on Mehsud's and his militant's whereabouts while publicly the Pakistani government will continue to condemn the attacks.
By: Syeda Mahwish Fatima Naqvi
From delish and sumptuous multi-cultural cuisines on the menu decked venues, couture designers and experts taking a plunge into wedding off the traditional dressing style with a modern tough and feel: The Chennai wedding season is truly twisting and recreating trends. Sounds very Indian and sounds festive, isn't it? Well, as long as the symbols and colors of happiness and exuberant keep exploding in each scene, we have nothing to worry about really. Regardless of all things in the mix, the brides still remain the main MVPs at the memorable extravaganza.
Needless to say, they make and break a show and are gradually becoming much more experimental with their looks and choices. As options galore for bridal makeup in a Chennai Matrimony, rendering a modern twist to its traditional core is the latest buzzword.
The main aim is to make the passa and side-parting without any tikka. It propels the traditional Indian bridal look to get updated.